American Politics

The American politics qualifying examination is an eight hour, one day, open note test. Students are asked to write no more than 30 pages, double-spaced and typically write about 25 pages on average. Students answer questions from three sections and, within each section, they typically will be able to choose among two or three possible questions.

Traditionally, the sections are divided along the following topic lines:

  1. Public opinion/electoral behavior/political participation/rational choice theories;
  2. Congress/presidency/bureaucracy/courts;
  3. Urban politics/social movements/interest groups/race, ethnicity, and gender politics/American political development.

The American politics faculty has devised a set list of 100 classic readings from books and articles in the field. This list is included below. These readings are the very minimal needed for preparing for the exam. In studying for the exam, students are also expected to be familiar with current research trends as evident in new books and in articles from the top journals (American Political Science Review, American Journal of Political Science, Journal of Politics) from the past 10 years. We highly recommend that students use the three volumes of Political Science: the State of the Discipline Series from the American Political Science Association. We also recommend that students interested in taking the exam take the survey course in American politics and consult with each member of the American politics faculty.

Finally, and most importantly, the exam is designed to force students to think beyond the debates in the subfield and apply the arguments they have learned to substantive issues within American politics. Students will be expected to answer the particular question posed before them. Examinations that give stock answers to general concerns in the field rather than addressing the particular issues posed in the questions will not be passed.

Reading List - Last revised: Fall 2023

Brehm, John, and Scott Gates. 1997. Working, Shirking, and Sabotage: Bureaucratic Response to a Democratic Public. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Carpenter, Daniel P. 2001. The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy: Reputations, Networks, and Policy Innovation in Executive Agencies, 1862-1928. Princeton University Press.

Gailmard, Sean, and John W. Patty. 2013. Learning while Governing: Expertise and
Accountability in the Executive Branch. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gordon, Sanford C. 2011. “Politicizing Agency Spending Authority: Lessons from a Bush-era
Scandal.” American Political Science Review 105: 717-734.

Huber, John D., and Charles R. Shipan. 2002. Deliberate Discretion: The Institutional
Foundations of Bureaucratic Autonomy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lewis, David.2008. The Politics of Presidential Appointments. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press.

Lipsky, Michael. 1980. Street Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. New York: Russell Sage.

McCubbis, Mathew D., and Thomas Schwartz. 1984. “Congressional Oversight Overlooked: Police Patrols versus Fire Alarms.” American Journal of Political Science 28: 165-179.

Moe, Terry. 1989. “The Politics of Bureaucratic Structure.” In John E. Chubb and Paul E.
Peterson, eds., Can the Government Govern?, pages 267-329.

Potter, Rachel. 2019. Bending the Rules: Procedural Politicking in the Bureaucracy. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.

Skowronek, Stephen. 1983. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National
Administrative Capacities, 1877-1920. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bickel, Alexander. 1963. The Least Dangerous Branch: The Supreme Court at the Bar of
New Haven: Yale University Press.

Cameron, Charles, and Jonathan P. Kastellec. 2016. “Are Supreme Court Nominations a Movethe-Median Game?” American Political Science Review 110(4): 778-797.

Clark, Tom S. 2010. The Limits of Judicial Independence. New York: Cambridge University

Dahl, Robert. 1957. “Decision-Making in a Democracy: The Supreme Court as a National
Policy-Maker.” Journal of Public Law 6: 279-295.

Epp, Charles R. 1998. The Rights Revolution: Lawyers, Activists, and Supreme Courts in
Comparative Perspective.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Graber, Mark. 1993. “The Nonmajoritarian Difficulty: Legislative Deference to the Judiciary.”
Studies in American Political Development 7(1): 35-73.

Harris, Allison and Maya Sen. 2019. “Bias and Judging.” Annual Review of Political Science 22: 241-59.

Huber, Gregory, and Sanford C. Gordon. 2004. “Accountability and Coercion: Is Justice Blind When it Runs for Office?” American Journal of Political Science 48(2): 247-263.

Kagan, Robert. 2001. Adversarial Legalism: The American Way of Law. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press.

Lauderdale, Benjamin, and Tom Clark. 2012. “The Supreme Court’s Many Median Justices.”
American Political Science Review 106(4): 847-866

Martin, Andrew and Kevin Quinn. 2002. “Dynamic Ideal Point Estimation via Markov Chain
Monte Carlo for the U.S. Supreme Court, 1953–1999.” Political Analysis 10(2): 134-153.

Rosenberg, Gerald. 2008. The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring About Social Change? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Segal, Jeffrey, and Harold Spaeth. 2002. The Supreme Court and the Attitudinal Model Revisited. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Whittington, Keith. 2005. “Interpose Your Friendly Hand: Political Supports for the Exercise of Judicial Review by the United States Supreme Court.” American Political Science
99: 583-596.

Ansolabehere, Stephen, James M. Snyder, Jr., and Charles Stewart III. 2001. “The Effects of
Party and Preferences on Congressional Roll Call Voting.” Legislative Studies Quarterly
26(4): 533-572.

Bloch Rubin, Ruth. 2017. Building the Bloc: Intraparty Organization in the U.S. Congress. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cox, Gary W., and Mathew D. McCubbins. 2005. Setting the Agenda: Responsible Party
Government in the U.S. House of Representatives.
New York: Cambridge University

Curry, James. 2015. Legislating in the Dark: Information and Power in the U.S. House of
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Curry, James, and Frances Lee. 2020. The Limits of Party: Congress and Lawmaking in a
Polarized Era.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fenno, Richard F. 1977. “House Members in Their Constituencies: An Exploration.” American
Political Science Review
71: 883-917.

Hall, Richard, and Alan V. Deardorff. 2006. “Lobbying as Legislative Subsidy.” American
Political Science Review
100: 69-84.

Krehbiel, Keith. 1993. “Where’s the Party?” British Journal of Political Science 23(3): 235-266.

Krehbiel, Keith. 1998. Pivotal Politics: A Theory of U.S. Lawmaking. University of Chicago

Lee, Frances. 2009. Beyond Ideology: Politics, Principles, and Partisanship in the U.S. Senate. University of Chicago Press.

Lee, Frances. 2016. Insecure Majorities: Congress and the Perpetual Campaign. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.

Mayhew, David. 1974. Congress: The Electoral Connection. New Haven: Yale University Press. 

McCubbins, Mathew D., and Thomas Schwartz. 1984. “Congressional Oversight Overlooked.” American Journal of Political Science 28(1): 165-179.

Shepsle, Kenneth, and Barry Weingast. 1987. “The Institutional Foundations of Committee
Power.” American Political Science Review 81: 85-104.

Berry, Christopher, Barry Burden, and William Howell. 2010. “The President and the Distribution of Federal Spending.” American Political Science Review 104(4):783-799.

Cameron, Charles. 2000. Veto Bargaining: Presidents and the Politics of Negative Power. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Canes-Wrone, Brandice. 2005. Who Leads Whom? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Canes-Wrone, Brandice, William G. Howell, and David E. Lewis. 2008. “Toward a Broader Understanding of Presidential Power: A Reevaluation of the Two Presidencies Thesis.” Journal of Politics 70(1): 1-16.

Groseclose, Tim, and Nolan McCarty. 2001. “The Politics of Blame: Bargaining before an Audience.” American Journal of Political Science 45(1): 100-119.

Howell, William G. 2003. Power without Persuasion: The Politics of Direct Presidential Action. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Howell, William, Saul Jackman, and Jon Rogowski. 2013. The Wartime President: Presidential Power and the Nationalizing Politics of Threat. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kriner, Douglas L., and Andrew Reeves. 2015. “Presidential Particularism and Divide-the-Dollar Politics.” American Political Science Review 109(1): 155-171.

Moe, Terry M. 1985. “The Politicized Presidency.” In The New Directions in American Politics, ed. John E. Chubb and Paul E. Peterson. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.

Neustadt, Richard. 1960. Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents. New York: Free Press.

Reeves, Andrew, and Jon C. Rogowski. 2022. No Blank Check: The Origins and Consequences of Public Antipathy toward Presidential Power. New York: Cambridge University Press. Wildavsky, Aaron. 1966. “The Two Presidencies.” Trans-action 4: 7-14.

Campbell, Andrea. 2003. How Policies Make Citizens: Senior Political Activism and the American Welfare State. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Frymer, Paul. 2017. Building an American Empire: The Era of Territorial and Political Expansion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Katznelson, Ira. 2006. “When is Affirmative Action Fair? On Grievous Harms and Public Remedies.” Social Research 541-568.

Lieberman, Robert C. 1995. “Race, Institutions, and the Administration of Social Policy.” Social Science History 19(4): 511-542.

Macías-Rojas, Patrisia. 2016. From Deportation to Prison: The Politics of Immigration Enforcement in Post-Civil Rights America. NYU Press.

Mickey, Robert. 2016. Paths Out of Dixie: The Democratization of Authoritarian Enclaves in America’s Deep South, 1944-1972. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Michener, Jamila. 2018. Fragmented Democracy: Medicaid, Federalism, and Unequal Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Skocpol, Theda. 1995. Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Soss, Joe. 1999. “Lessons of Welfare: Policy Design, Political Learning, and Political Action.” American Political Science Review 93(2): 363–80.

Vallely, Richard. 2004. The Two Reconstructions: The Struggle for Black Enfranchisement. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Weaver, Vesla M. 2007. “Frontlash: Race and the Development of Punitive Crime Policy.” Studies in American Political Development 21(2): 230 – 265.

Weaver, Vesla M., and Amy E. Lerman. 2014. Arresting Citizenship: The Democratic Consequences of American Crime Control. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ansolabehere, Stephen, Alan Gerber, and Jim Snyder. 2002. “Equal Votes, Equal Money: Court- Ordered Redistricting and Expenditures in the American States.” American Political Science Review 96(4): 767-777.

Ansolabehere, Stephen, Jim Snyder, and Charles Stewart. 2001. “Candidate Positioning in US House Elections.” American Journal of Political Science Review 45(1): 136-159.

Bafumi, Joseph, and Michael Herron. 2010. “Leapfrog Representation and Extremism: A Study of American Voters and Their Members in Congress.” American Political Science Review 104(3): 519-542.

Bobo, Lawrence, and Franklin D. Gilliam, Jr. 1990. “Race, Sociopolitical Participation, and Black Empowerment.” American Political Science Review 84: 377-393.

Cameron, Charles, David Epstein, Sharyn O'Halloran. 1996. “Do Majority-Minority Districts Maximize Substantive Black Representation in Congress?” American Political Science Review 90(4): 794-812.

Canes-Wrone, Brandice, David Brady, and John Cogan. 2002. “Out of Step, Out of Office: Electoral Accountability and House Members’ Voting.” American Political Science Review 96: 127-140.

Cascio, Elizabeth U., and Ebonya Washington. 2013. “Valuing the Vote: The Redistribution of Voting Rights and State Funds following the Voting Rights Act of 1965.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 129(1): 379-433.

Gay, Claudine. 2001. “The Effect of Black Congressional Representation on Political Participation.” American Political Science Review 95(3): 589–602.

MacKuen, Michael, and Robert Erikson, and James Stimson. 2002. The Macro Polity. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mansbridge, Jane. 2003. “Rethinking Representation.” American Political Science Review 97(4): 515-528.

Rhodes, Jesse H., and Brian F. Schaffner. 2017. “Testing Models of Unequal Representation: Democratic Populists and Republican Oligarchs?” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 12(2): 185-204

Soroka, Stuart N., and Christopher Wlezien. 2009. Degrees of Democracy: Politics, Public Opinion, and Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Strömberg, David. 2004. “Radio’s Impact on Public Spending.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 119(1): 189-221.

Abrajano, Marisa, and Zoltan L. Hajnal. 2015. White Backlash: Immigration, Race, and American Politics. Princeton University Press.

Albertson, Bethany and Gadarian, Shana. 2015. Anxious Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press. Chapters 1, 3, 4.

Alvarez, R. Michael, and John Brehm. 2002. Hard Choices, Easy Answers: Values, Information, and American Public Opinion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Campbell, Angus, Phillip Converse, Warren Miller, and Donald Stokes. 1960. The American Voter. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Converse, Philip. 1964. “The Nature of Belief Systems in Mass Publics.” In Ideology and Discontent, ed. David Apter. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.

Druckman, James N., Erik Peterson, and Rune Slothuus. 2013. “How Elite Partisan Polarization Affects Public Opinion Formation.” American Political Science Review 107: 57-79.

Feldman, Stanley. 1988. “Structure and Consistency in Public Opinion: The Role of Core Beliefs and Values.” American Journal of Political Science 32: 416-440.

Hopkins, Daniel J. 2010. “Politicized Places: Explaining Where and When Immigrants Provoke Opposition.” American Political Science Review 104: 40-60.

Lenz, Gabriel S. 2009. “Learning and Opinion Change, Not Priming: Reconsidering the Priming Hypothesis.” American Journal of Political Science 53: 821-837.

Mendelberg, Tali. 2001. The Race Card: Campaign Strategy, Implicit Messages, and the Norm of Equality. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Chapters 5, 7.

Oliver, J. Eric and Thomas Wood. 2018. Enchanted America: How Intuition and Reason Divide Our Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Chapters 2, 6.

Walsh, Katherine Cramer. 2012. “Putting Inequality in its Place: Rural Consciousness and the Power of Perspective.” American Political Science Review 106(3): 517-532.

Wlezien, Christopher. 1995. “The Public as Thermostat: Dynamics of Preferences for Spending.” American Journal of Political Science 39(4): 981-1000.

Zaller, John. 1992. The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Alt, James, Ethan Bueno de Mesquita, and Shanna Rose. 2011. “Disentangling Accountability and Competence in Elections: Evidence from Term Limits.” Journal of Politics 73: 171- 186.

Ansolabehere, Stephen, John de Figueiredo, and James Snyder, Jr. 2003. “Why Is There So Little Money in Politics?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 17: 105-130.

Ansolabehere, Stephen, John Mark Hansen, Shigeo Hirano, and James M. Snyder, Jr. 2010. “More Democracy: The Direct Primary and Competition in U.S. Elections.” Studies in American Political Development 24: 190-205.

Anzia, Sarah F. 2011. “Election Timing and the Electoral Influence of Interest Groups.” Journal of Politics 73: 412-427.

De Benedictnis-Kessner, Justin, and Christopher Warshaw. 2020. “Accountability for the Local Economy at All Levels of Government in United States Elections.” American Political Science Review 114(3):660-676.

Downs, Anthony. 1957. An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper and Row. Chapters 3, 7, and 8.

Fiorina, Morris. 1978. “Economic Retrospective Voting in American National Elections: A Micro-Level Analysis.” American Journal of Political Science 22: 426-443.

Gelman, Andrew, and Gary King. 1993. “Why Are American Presidential Election Campaign Polls So Variable When Votes are So Predictable?” British Journal of Political Science 23: 409-451.

Kinder, Donald R., and D. Roderick Kiewiet. 1981. “Sociotropic Politics: The American Case,” British Journal of Political Science 11: 129-161.

Kramer, Gerald H. 1971. “Short-Term Fluctuations in U.S. Voting Behavior, 1896-1964.” American Political Science Review 65(1): 131-143

Lupia, Arthur. 1994. “Shortcuts Versus Encyclopedias: Information and Voting Behavior in California Insurance Reform Elections.” American Political Science Review 88: 63-76.

Burch, Traci. 2013. Trading Democracy for Justice: Criminal Convictions and the Decline of Neighborhood Political Participation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Burns, Nancy, Kay Schlozman, and Sidney Verba. 1997. “The Public Consequences of Private Inequality: Family Life and Citizen Participation.” American Political Science Review 91: 373-389.

Clinton, Joshua, and Michael Sances. 2018. “The Politics of Policy: The Initial Mass Political Effects of Medicaid Expansion in the United States.” American Political Science Review 112: 167-185.

Gentzkow, Matthew. 2006. “Television and Voter Turnout.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 71(August): 931-72

Green, Donald, and Alan Gerber. 2000. “The Effects of Canvassing, Telephone Calls, and Direct Mail on Voter Turnout: A Field Experiment.” American Political Science Review 94: 653-663.

Han, Hahrie. 2009. Moved to Action: Motivation, Participation, and Inequality in American Politics. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press.

Phoenix, Davin. 2020. The Anger Gap: How Race Shapes Emotion in Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 2.

Riker, William, and Peter Ordeshook. 1968. “A Theory of the Calculus of Voting.” American Political Science Review 62: 25-42.

Rosenstone, Steven, and John Mark Hansen. 1993. Mobilization, Participation, and Democracy in America. New York: Macmillan.

Verba, Sidney, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Henry Brady. 1995. Voice and Equality: Civic Volunteerism in American Politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Aldrich, John. 1995. Why Parties: The Origins and Transformation of Political Parties in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bawn, Kathleen, Martin Cohen, David Karol, Seth Masket, Hans Noel, and John Zaller. 2012. “A Theory of Political Parties: Groups, Policy Demands and Nominations in American Politics.” Perspectives on Politics 10: 571‐591.

Bloch Rubin, Ruth. 2017. Building the Bloc: Intraparty Organization in the U.S. Congress. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Carmines, Edward G., and James A. Stimson. 1986. “On the Structure and Sequence of Issue Evolution.” American Political Science Review 80(3): 901-920.

Green, Donald, Bradley Palmquist, and Eric Schickler. 2002. Partisan Hearts and Minds: Political Parties and the Social Identity of Voters. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Grossmann, Matt, and David A. Hopkins. 2015. “Ideological Republicans and Group Interest Democrats: The Asymmetry of American Party Politics.” Perspectives on Politics 13: 119-139.

Hacker, Jacob S., and Paul Pierson. 2014. “After the ‘Master Theory’: Downs, Schattschneider, and the Rebirth of Policy-Focused Analysis.” Perspectives on Politics 12: 643-662.

Huddy, Leonie, Lilliana Mason, and Lene Aaroe. 2015. “Expressive Partisanship: Campaign Involvement, Political Emotion, and Partisan Identity.” American Political Science Review 109: 1-17.

Iyengar, Shanto, Gaurav Sood, and Yphtach Lelkes. 2012. “Affect, Not Ideology: A Social Identity Perspective on Polarization.” Public Opinion Quarterly 76(Fall): 405-31.

Key, V.O., Jr. 1984 [1949]. Southern Politics in State and Nation. NY: Knopf.

Schickler, Eric. 2016. Racial Realignment: The Transformation of American Liberalism, 1932- 1965. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Tesler, Michael. 2012. “The Return of Old-Fashioned Racism to White Americans’ Partisan Preferences in the Early Obama Era.” Journal of Politics 75(1): 110-123.

Barreto, Matt A. 2007. “¡Sí Se Puede! Latino Candidates and the Mobilization of Latino Voters.” American Political Science Review 101(3): 425-441.

Cohen, Cathy J. 1999. The Boundaries of Blackness: AIDS and the Breakdown of Black Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Cohen, Cathy J. 2010. Democracy Remixed: Black Youth and the Future of American Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Chs. 1, 2, 4.

Dawson, Michael C. 1994. Behind the Mule: Race and Class in African-American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, Chpts 1-3, 9.

Dawson, Michael. 2000. Black Visions: The Roots of Contemporary African-American Political Ideologies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Chs. 2, 3, 6.

Frymer, Paul. 2005. “Racism Revised: Courts, Labor Law, and the Institutional Construction of Racial Animus.” American Political Science Review 99 (3): 373-387.

Garcia Bedolla, Lisa. 2005. Fluid Borders: Latino Power, Identity, and Politics in Los Angeles. University of California Press.

Harris-Lacewell, Melissa. 2003. “The Heart of the Politics of Race: Centering Black People in the Study of White Racial Attitudes.” Journal of Black Studies 34(2): 222-249

Jones-Correa, Michael. 1998. Between Two Nations: The Political Predicament of Latinos in New York City. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Kinder, Donald, and Lynn Sanders, 1997. Divided by Color: Racial Politics and Democratic Ideals. University of Chicago Press. Chapters 1-6.

King, Desmond, and Rogers Smith. 2005. “Racial Orders in American Political Development.” American Political Science Review 99: 75-92.

Kim, Claire Jean. 1999. “The Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans.” Politics & Society 27(1): 105-138.

Ngai, Mae M. 1999. “The Architecture of Race in American Immigration Law: A Reexamination of the Immigration Act of 1924.” The Journal of American History 86(1): 67-92.

Omi, Michael, and Winant, Howard. 1986. Racial Formation in the United States. New York: Routledge.

Pérez, Efrén O. 2015. “Xenophobic Rhetoric and Its Political Effects on Immigrants and their Co-Ethnics.” American Journal of Political Science 59(3): 549-564.

White, Ismail K., and Chryl N. Laird. 2020. Steadfast Democrats: How Social Forces Shape Black Political Behavior. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Andrews, Kenneth T. 2001. “Social Movements and Policy Implementation: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement and the War on Poverty, 1965 to 1971.” American Sociological Review 66(1): 71-95.

Baumgartner, Frank R., Jeffrey M. Berry, Marie Hojnacki, David C. Kimball, and Beth L. Leech. 2009. Lobbying and Policy Change: Who Wins, Who Loses, and Why. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Francis, Megan Ming. 2019. “The Price of Civil Rights: Black Lives, White Funding, and Movement Capture.” Law & Society Review 53: 275–309.

Gillion, Daniel Q. 2012. “Protest and Congressional Behavior: Assessing Racial and Ethnic Minority Protests in the District.” Journal of Politics 74(4): 950-962.

Han, Hahrie. 2014. How Organizations Develop Activists: Civic Associations and Leadership in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press.

McAdam, Doug. 2015. “Be Careful What You Wish For: The Ironic Connection Between the Civil Rights Struggle and Today’s Divided America.” Sociological Forum 30(S1): 485– 508.

Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Harvard University Press. Chapter 1.

Parker, Christopher S., and Matt A. Barreto. 2013. Change They Can’t Believe In: The Tea Party and Reactionary Politics in Contemporary America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Schlozman, Kay Lehman. 1984. “What Accent the Heavenly Chorus? Political Equality and the American Pressure System.” Journal of Politics 46: 1006-1032.

Skocpol, Theda, Marshall Ganz, and Ziad Munson. 2000. “A Nation of Organizers: The Institutional Origins of Civic Voluntarism in the United States.” American Political Science Review 94: 527-546.

Tarrow, Sidney. 2011. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Teele, Dawn Langan. 2018. “How the West Was Won: Competition, Mobilization, and Women’s Enfranchisement in the United States.” Journal of Politics 80(2): 442-461.

Zepeda-Millán, Chris. 2017. Latino Mass Mobilization: Immigration, Racialization, and Activism. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Williamson, Vanessa, Theda Skocpol and John Coggin. 2011. “The Tea Party and the Remaking of Republican Conservatism.” Perspectives on Politics 9(1): 25–43.

Caughey, Devin, and Christopher Warshaw. 2022. Dynamic Democracy: Public Opinion, Elections, and Policymaking in the American States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Dahl, Robert. 2005 [1961]. Who Governs? New Haven: Yale University Press.

Gerber, Elisabeth. 1996. “Legislative Response to the Threat of Popular Initiatives.” American Journal of Political Science 40: 99-128.

Gerber, Elisabeth R. and Daniel J. Hopkins. 2011. “When Mayors Matter: Estimating the Impact of Mayoral Partisanship on City Policy.” American Journal of Political Science 55: 326- 339.

Lax, Jeffrey, and Justin Phillips. 2012. “The Democratic Deficit in the States.” American Journal of Political Science 56: 148-166.

Oliver, Eric. 2012. Local Elections and the Politics of Small-Scale Democracy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Payson, Julia. 2021. When Cities Lobby: How Local Governments Compete for Power in State Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.

Shipan, Charles, and Craig Volden. 2008. “The Mechanisms of Policy Diffusion.” American Journal of Political Science 52: 840-857.

Tiebout, Charles. 1956. “A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures.” Journal of Political Economy 64: 416-424.

Trounstine, Jessica. 2016. “Segregation and Inequality in Public Goods.” American Journal of Political Science 60: 709-725.

Bednar, Jenna. 2011. “The Political Science of Federalism.” Annual Review of Law and Politics 7: 269-288.

Berry, Christopher R. 2008. “Piling On: Multilevel Government and the Fiscal Common-Pool.” American Journal of Political Science 52: 802-820.

Grumbach, Jacob M. 2022. Laboratories against Democracy: How National Parties Transformed State Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hopkins, Daniel J. 2018. The Increasingly United States: How and Why American Political Behavior Nationalized. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Johnson, Kimberly S. 2007. Governing the American State: Congress and the New Federalism, 1877-1929. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Kettl, Donald F. 2020. The Divided States of America: Why Federalism Doesn’t Work. Princeton University Press. Chapters 1 and 9. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Lewis, P. G., D. M. Provine, M. W. Varsanyi, and S. H. Decker. 2013. “Why Do (Some) City Police Departments Enforce Federal Immigration Law? Political, Demographic, and Organizational Influences on Local Choices.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 23(1): 1–25.

Michener, Jamila. 2018. Fragmented Democracy: Medicaid, Federalism, and Unequal Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Riker, William H. 2017. “Federalism.” In A Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy, eds. Robert E. Goodin, Philip Pettit, and Thomas Pogge. Chapter 32.

Simonovits, Gabor, and Julia Payson. 2023. “Locally Controlled Minimum Wages Leapfrog Public Preferences.” Quarterly Journal of Political Science 18(4): 543-570.

Tullock, Gordon. 1969. “Federalism: Problems of Scale.” Public Choice 6: 19-29.

Dahl, Robert. 1956. A Preface to Democratic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Chapter 3.

Dahl, Robert. 2001. How Democratic is the American Constitution? New Haven: Yale University Press.

Selection from “Essays of Brutus” (1787-1788), in David Hollinger and Charles Capper (eds), The American Intellectual Tradition: Volume 1: 1630 to 1865. New York: Oxford University Press, 2015. Pages 158-167.

Federalist Papers, #10 and #51. Hartz, Louis. 1955. The Liberal Tradition in America. New York: Harcourt, Brace. Chapter 1.

Lowi, Theodore J. (1988). “Foreword: New Dimensions in Policy and Politics.” In R. Tatalovich and Byron W. Daynes (Eds.), Social Regulatory Policy: Moral Controversies in American Politics (pp. xxxi). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Smith, Rogers M. 1993. “Beyond Tocqueville, Myrdal, and Hartz: The Multiple Traditions in America.” American Political Science Review 87: 549-566.

Morone, James. 1996. “The Struggle for American Culture,” PS: Political Science and Politics 29: 424-430.